Excavation and Backfill by Hand (cont.) Using hand tools.
Pits to 5' (pits over 5' require shoring)
  Light soil BL@1.34 CY — 40.00 40.00
  Average soil BL@2.00 CY — 59.60 59.60
  Heavy soil BL@2.75 CY — 82.00 82.00
Shaping trench bottom for pipe
  To 10" pipe BL@.024 LF — .72 .72
  12" to 20" pipe BL@.076 LF — 2.27 2.27
Shaping embankment slopes
  Up to 1 in 4 slope BL@.060 SY — 1.79 1.79
  Over 1 in 4 slope BL@.075 SY — 2.24 2.24
  Add for top crown or toe — % — 50.0 —
  Add for swales — % — 90.0 —
Spreading material piled on site
  Average soil BL@.367 CY — 10.90 10.90
  Stone or clay BL@.468 CY — 14.00 14.00
Strip and pile top soil, depths to 6" BL@.024 SF — .72 .72
Tamping, hand tamp only BL@.612 CY — 18.20 18.20
Trenches to 5', soil piled beside trench
  Light soil BL@1.13 CY — 33.70 33.70
  Average soil BL@1.84 CY — 54.90 54.90
  Heavy soil or loose rock BL@2.86 CY — 85.30 85.30
Trenching and Backfill with Heavy Equipment These costs and productivity are based on utility line trenches and continuous footings where the spoil is piled adjacent to the trench. Linear feet (LF) and cubic yards (CY) per hour shown are based on a crew of two. Reduce productivity by 10% to 25% when spoil is loaded in trucks. Shoring, dewatering or unusual conditions are not included.
Craft@Hrs Unit Material Labor Equipment Total
Wheel loader 55 HP, with integral backhoe
  12" wide bucket, for 12" wide trench. Depths 3' to 5'
    Light soil (60 LF per hour) B8@.033 LF — 1.18 .69 1.87
    Medium soil (55 LF per hour) B8@.036 LF — 1.29 .75 2.04
    Heavy or wet soil (35 LF per hour) B8@.057 LF — 2.05 1.19 3.24
  18" wide bucket, for 18" wide trench. Depths 3' to 5'
    Light soil (55 LF per hour) B8@.036 LF — 1.29 .75 2.04
    Medium soil (50 LF per hour) B8@.040 LF — 1.44 .84 2.28
    Heavy or wet soil (30 LF per hour) B8@.067 LF — 2.40 1.40 3.80
  24" wide bucket, for 24" wide trench. Depths 3' to 5'
    Light soil (50 LF per hour) B8@.040 LF — 1.44 .84 2.28
    Medium soil (45 LF per hour) B8@.044 LF — 1.58 .92 2.50
    Heavy or wet soil (25 LF per hour) B8@.080 LF — 2.87 1.68 4.55
Backfill trenches from loose material piled adjacent to trench. No compaction included.
Soil, previously excavated
  Front-end loader 60 HP
    (50 CY per hour) B8@.040 CY — 1.44 .88 2.32
  D-3 crawler dozer
    (25 CY per hour) B8@.080 CY — 2.87 1.95 4.82
  3/4 CY crawler loader
    (33 CY per hour) B8@.061 CY — 2.19 1.29 3.48
  D-7 crawler dozer
    (130 CY per hour) B8@.015 CY — .54 .81 1.35
Sand or gravel bedding
  3/4 CY wheel loader
    (80 CY per hour) B8@.025 CY — .90 .52 1.42

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